KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383
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KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 sensitometry (characteristic curve) is different from EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386. The upper scale is slightly higher in D-max, resulting in an improved black on projection. The toe areas of the three sensitometric curves are matched more closely than 2386 Film, producing more neutral highlights on projection.
2383/3383 Film is coated on a new ESTAR base featuring proprietary Kodak technology that replaces rem-jet with a process-surviving, anti-static layer, and scratch-resistant backing layer. This film has an efficient antihalation layer under the emulsion layers, using patented solid particle dyes that are decolorized and removed during processing.
Laboratory benefits include:
- Polyester base - greater tear strength, durability, dimensional stability, and archival keeping.
- Elimination of rem-jet (no carbon black or prebath- soluble binder) - potential for reduced chemical and water usage in processing, and improved cleanliness on high speed printers (less white dirt).
- Process-surviving anti-static layer along with UV dye - protection from static marks prior to printing
- Process-surviving anti-static layer - reduced dirt attraction to processed prints and static protection prior to processing
- Process-surviving lubricant - better transport characteristics for processed film
- Patented antihalation dye technology - superior halation protection (no colored fringes in titles), and improved safelight edge fog protection for digital soundtrack area
- Patented emulsion technology - improved fades and dissolves, less propensity to safelight fog, better blacks, and improved subtitling
- Optimized tone scale / New photographic technology - improved blacks and more neutral highlights on projection
- Fundamental improvements to the base - improved laser subtitling
Benefits for distributors and exhibitors include:
- Polyester base, elimination of rem-jet, process-surviving ant-static layer along with UV dye, scratch resistant backing layer, and process-surviving lubricant - cleaner, more durable prints
- Patented antihalation dye technology - no colored fringes in titles, and improved safelight edgefog protection for digital soundtrack
- Patented emulsion technology - improved fades and dissolves, less propensity to safelight fog, better blacks, improved subtitling, and less lab-to-lab processing variability for one look worldwide
- Optimized tone scale / New photographic technology - improved blacks, and more neutral highlights on projection
- Fundamental improvements to the base - improved laser subtitling
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 is coated on thin 0.0047 inch (120 micrometres) ESTAR (polyethylene terepthalate) base, featuring a proprietary electrically conductive anti-static layer, a scratch-resistant backing layer, and a process-surviving backside lubricant. Unlike rem-jet backing, the anti-static layer remains with the film after processing, eliminating the electrostatic attraction of dirt particles to the processed print, even at very low relative humidity. A very thin polymeric backing layer coated on top of the anti-static layer provides improved resistance to back-side scratches, cinch marks, and abrasion of both raw stock and processed film. The backing layer also contains process-surviving lubricant and matte to optimize winding and transport characteristics.
An antihalation layer containing proprietary solid particle dyes is coated under the normal emulsion. The antihalation dyes offer superior protection against halation (exposure by light reflected back from the support surfaces), minimizing color fringing in very high contrast scenes such as white titles or night scenes with automobile headlights. The antihalation layer also provides improved resistance to safelight edgefog, since it is coated between the support and the emulsion layers, and absorbs any support light-piping from the edge of the roll. The antihalation dyes are decolorized and removed during processing.
The imaging layers are coated on top of the antihalation layer and they contain new patented emulsion and coupler technology. The bottom layer is sensitive to blue light, and produces the yellow dye image. An interlayer controls diffusion of developer and development by-products. The next layer is sensitized to red light, and yields the cyan dye image. Another interlayer is coated on top of it. The top image-forming layer is sensitized to green light, and produces magenta dye. On top of the image forming layers is a very thin layer (known as the SOC) that provides protection from scratches. Process-surviving lubricant and matte are used in the SOC to optimize winding and transport characteristics. The emulsion layers also contain absorber dyes to control film speed and reduce intra-grain light scatter, increasing sharpness and further reducing halation. These soluble absorber dyes, which give the raw stock emulsion its familiar purple-blue color, are washed out during processing.
The sensitometry (characteristic curve) of KODAK VISION Color Print Film / /3383 is different from EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386. The upper scale is slightly higher in D-max, resulting in an improved black on projection. The toe areas of the three sensitometric curves are matched more closely than 2386 Film, resulting in more neutral highlights on projection.
Spectral Sensitivity -
Spectral sensitivity measures the sensitivity of the film as a function of the wavelength of the exposing light. Spectral sensitivity of 2383/3383 Film more closely matches EASTMAN EXR Color Intermediate Film 5244, 2244. This gives a better match between direct prints and prints from a duplicate negative produced on EASTMAN EXR Color Intermediate Film.
Spectral Dye Density -
Spectral dye density measures the density of each imaging dye (yellow, magenta, cyan) in the processed film as a function of viewing illuminant wavelength. Dye densities are normalized to form a visual neutral density of 1.0 for the viewing illuminant (e.g. xenon arc projection). The red and green spectral dye densities closely match 2386, 3386 Film. The yellow spectral dye density is narrower on the long wavelength side, resulting in less unwanted absorbing in the green light region of the visible spectrum. This gives a more pleasing rendition of yellows compared to 2386, 3386 Film.
Color Reproduction -
The differences in spectral dye densities and interimage effects of 2383/3383 Film have improved the color reproduction relative to 2386, 3386 Film. The yellow spectral dye density is narrower on the long wavelength side resulting in less unwanted absorption in the green light region of the visible spectrum. This results in a more pleasing rendition of yellows compared to 2386, 3386 Film. Also, there is less oxidized developer wandering between the yellow and cyan dye forming layers resulting in a cleaner, more saturated red color reproduction compared to 2386, 3386 Film. Even with these changes the fleshtones show the same excellent color reproduction as 2386, 3386 Film.
Reciprocity Characteristics -
Color print film is designed to be printed on a wide variety of printers, ranging from slow step-optical printers to very high speed continuous contact printers used for release printing. Exposure times on these printers may range from approximately 1/10 of a second to almost 1/3000 of a second. 2383/3383 Film exhibits little or no change in tone scale over this wide range of exposure times. For printers that change exposure time during printing (e.g. contact printers that change light level automatically as the printer changes speed), new speed reciprocity correction should be used. Consult with the printer manufacturer for the proper test procedure for obtaining the appropriate corrections.
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 has improved fade and dissolve characteristics relative to 2386, 3386 Film. Printers with mechanical fader cams will no longer need to use filter correction to achieve neutral color balance with fades and dissolves. Printers with programmable light valves will need to reprogram the fade and dissolve algorithm in the printer to obtain neutral color balance with fades and dissolves. Consult with the printer manufacturer for the proper test procedure for obtaining the appropriate corrections.
Like EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386, KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 has excellent sharpness, capable of capturing almost all of the detail in the printing negative and projecting it onto the largest of theatre screens. Fine grained emulsions, ultra-thin layers, intra-grain absorbing dyes, and superior halation protection all contribute to this excellent performance.
Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is an objective measure of film sharpness. The film is exposed with a spatially varying sinusoidal test pattern having 35 percent modulation. After processing the MTF target images are measured with a microdensitometer. The response of the film (percent) for each color record is plotted as a function of the spatial frequency (cycles per millimetre) of the original exposure.
Resolving Power subjectively measures the ability of the film to resolve a test target consisting of closely spaced parallel lines. High contrast (Test Object Contrast 1000:1) and low contrast (Test Object Contrast 1.6:1) resolution bar targets are exposed onto the film, and the highest spatial frequency (lines pairs per millimetre) that can be resolved is measured from the processed film by viewing the images with a microscope.
High Contrast Test Object Resolving Power:
- >550 line pairs per millimetre (TOC 1000:1)
Low Contrast Test Object Resolving Power:
- >200 line pairs per millimetre (TOC 1.6:1)
RMS Granularity is measured by scanning a series of uniformly exposed density steps using a microdensitometer having a 48 micrometre diameter aperture, and measuring the relative "noise" caused by the grain structure of the film at each density. The Granularity (Sigma D x 1000) is plotted as a function of the Relative Log Exposure, along with a plot of the densities (sensitometric curve) of the film. The emulsion granularity of KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 is similar to that of 2386, 3386 Film.
Relative to 2386, 3386 Film, KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 has less propensity to safelight fog, for both emulsion-side and back-side exposure. For wound rolls, 2383/3383 Film shows less propensity to edgefog from excessive safelight illumination.
Color print film is sensitized to red, green and blue light, as shown by the spectral sensitivity curves. There is a decrease in sensitivity at approximately 590 nanometers. Since the human eye is fairly sensitive to light at this wavelength, and the color print film is relatively insensitive, laboratory darkrooms often use safelights at or near this wavelength.
Because low pressure sodium vapor lamps produce most of their illumination at 589 nanometers, they are often used in safelights providing general darkroom illumination. However, these lights must be used with safelight filters similar to the KODAK 8 Safelight Filter or with integral dichroic coatings to block unwanted wavelengths of light to which the film is more sensitive. A properly filtered sodium vapor lamp provides the best visual efficiency with the least effect on the film.
Another commonly used safelight is a small (less than 15-watt) tungsten bulb filtered to a narrow bandwidth centered at 590 nanometers. Because the tungsten bulbs can be turned on and off easily, or controlled by a dimmer, these safelights are often used for task lighting. A KODAK 8 Safelight Filter is the recommended filter for illumination in color print film darkrooms. Because safelight filters can fade or be easily removed, they should be routinely checked, and replaced when needed.
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are also used as task lights and path lights in color print darkrooms. (Path lighting uses pinpoints of light provided by strings of LEDs to outline doorways, aisles, tables, equipment, and other objects in the darkroom.) Amber LEDs with a peak wavelength of 590 nanometers provide light to which print film is relatively insensitive. However, the bandwidth is typically greater than either sodium vapor illumination or safelight filters, so they should not be used for prolonged or general darkroom illumination.
Of course, the word safelight is a misnomer --- any visible light will eventually fog color film, depending upon the intensity and the time of exposure. Prudent use of path lighting and task lighting will enhance operator safety and efficiency, while minimizing overall film exposure. Darkroom illumination should be routinely checked for any sensitometric effect on the film. Kodak can provide assistance in recommending darkroom illumination. FPC, a Kodak company, sells LED-based path lighting and task lighting equipment.
Storage of Raw Stock
Film is perishable, and changes with prolonged storage or adverse storage conditions. After packaging, Kodak stores print film raw stock at 13°C(55°F) or lower. Transportation and distribution warehousing are refrigerated. Print film is not adversely affected by short term storage at room temperatures (less than 25°C/77°F) prior to printing. Refrigerated storage (13°C/55°F or less) is recommended for raw stock kept more than one month. Avoid unconditioned storage, as sensitometric and physical changes occur more rapidly at high temperatures, and may degrade film quality. If refrigerated storage is used, allow the sealed can or foil bag to equilibrate to room temperature before opening to avoid moisture condensation. Unused raw stock should be rebagged and put into sealed film cans before being put back in refrigerated storage.
Color print film is balanced for printing from a color negative, duplicate negative, or internegative, using either an additive or subtractive printer. Black-and-white (silver image) negatives can be printed to yield a fairly neutral image on color print film, although slight coloration may be seen in highlights or shadows.
In an additive printer, white light is separated into red, green, and blue spectral bands (usually by dichroic mirrors), so each primary color can be controlled by electronic or electro-mechanical "vanes", and changed on a scene-to-scene basis using "TAPE" control. Overall balance adjustment is provided by "TRIM" and by the insertion of neutral density filters into the red, green, and blue light path. The three light beams are then recombined at the printing aperture. Overall filtration should include a UV-absorbing filter (KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 2B).
In a subtractive printer, the color of the exposing light is adjusted by using subtractive filters, such as KODAK Color Compensating (CC) Filters. In most cases, the filter pack will use primarily yellow and magenta CC filters, along with the recommended UV filtration (KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 2B). Overall exposure is usually adjusted using a mechanical diaphragm. Scene-to-scene color balance correction is usually not possible on a subtractive printer.
Laboratory Aim Density (LAD)
To maintain optimum quality and consistency in the final prints, the laboratory must carefully control the color timing, printing, and processing. Kodak's Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) control method assists laboratories in setting up and controlling the electronic color analyzer used for color timing, and the printing and duplicating procedures. The use of the LAD control method is described in the paper "A Simplified Motion-Picture Laboratory Control Method for Improved Color Duplication" by John P. Pytlak and Alfred W. Fleischer, published in the October 1976 SMPTE Journal. A simplified description of the LAD method is outlined in KODAK Publication No.H-61A, "Using LAD to Set Up an Electronic Color Analyzer and Control Duplicating".
To aid in color timing and curve placement, negative originals should be timed relative to the Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) Control Film supplied by Kodak. The electronic color analyzer used for color timing is set-up with the LAD Control Film to produce a gray video display of the LAD patch, corresponding to a 1.0 neutral density (gray) on the print. The negative is then scene-to-scene timed to determine the printer lights ("TAPE" values) for each scene, relative to the printer/analyzer setup lights (usually TAPE 25-25-25).
There are specific LAD values for each type of print or duplicating film that the original may be printed onto. For duplicating films, (e.g. to make a master positive), the specified aim densities are at the center of the usable straight-line portion of the sensitometric curve of the film. For print film, the LAD patch is printed to obtain a neutral gray of 1.00 visual density (1.00 Equivalent Neutral Density) on the processed print at the setup lights (e.g. TAPE 25-25-25).
For prints intended for projection with xenon arc projectors, the Laboratory Aim Densities for KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 corresponding to a 1.00 density visual gray are:
as read with Status A densitometry. The LAD Control Film printed to this aim will appear properly balanced, with a neutral gray scale and pleasing flesh tone. Scenes timed relative to the LAD Control Film will reflect the balance decisions made by the color timer.
The printer setup for KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 is similar to EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386, with little or no change required.
Most motion-picture printers use tungsten-halogen bulbs as the light source. A well filtered and regulated constant-current DC power supply is recommended for stable lamp operation. In order to obtain long bulb life and reasonable light output, the bulb should be operated at about 80 percent of its rated voltage, and with good ventilation. For example, a 120 volt bulb operated at 96 volts will produce half of its maximum light output, but will typically last 20 times its rated life. For printer control, current (amperes) is the best monitor of bulb power consumption.
A dichroic or IR-absorbing heat filter (such as a KODAK Heat Absorbing Glass, No. 2043) should be used to remove excess infrared energy from the light. These are usually supplied by the printer manufacturer. Cracked, worn, or damaged heat filters should be replaced. Excess infrared energy causes unnecessary heating of printer components (dichroic mirrors, filters, etc.), changing their characteristics and increasing variability.
An ultraviolet (UV) absorbing filter must be used in the overall (white) light beam of the printer. A KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 2B is the recommended UV filter. The filter should be replaced periodically, as unwanted ultraviolet energy will cause contrast mismatch and color desaturation.
Additive printer setup using the LAD Control Method is based on printing the LAD Control Film to its specified aim at the "normal" TAPE balance used by the laboratory (e.g. TAPE 25-25-25). The printer TRIM controls should be normalized to near the center of their range (e.g. near TRIM 12-12-12), with neutral density filters (e.g. KODAK WRATTEN Neutral Density Filter No. 96) used in each beam to adjust the overall exposure. Day-to-day changes in the printer light output and film batch changes are accommodated by slight adjustments of printer TRIM. Scene-to-scene timing relative to the LAD Control Film's setup balance is contained in the TAPE values.
As an example, the setup balance for a BHP Model 6123 additive contact printer was as follows:
- Lamp voltage: 90 volts
- Printing Speed: 240 feet per minute
- Overall filter: KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 2B
- Red: Tape 25, TRIM 14, 0.40 ND
- Green: TAPE 25, TRIM 14, 0.50 ND
- Blue: TAPE 25, TRIM 11, 0.60 ND
Subtractive printer setup likewise uses a tungsten or tungsten-halogen bulb operating at about 80 percent of rated voltage for extended lamp life. A dichroic or infrared-absorbing heat filter should also be used. The filter pack should contain a UV-absorbing filter (KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 2B) and suitable color balancing filters (KODAK WRATTEN Color Compensating Filters).
Analog and digital soundtrack printer setup and control procedures for 2383/3383 Film are similar to EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386, with little or no change required.
Analog variable area positive soundtracks of dye + silver usually restrict the soundtrack exposure to the top two (magenta and cyan) emulsion layers, by using a deep yellow KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. 12 to absorb blue light. A UV-absorbing filter such as a KODAK WRATTEN No. 2B may be included in the filter pack, but is optional because the deep yellow No. 12 filter is also an effective UV-absorber. Bulb current (amperes) or voltage (volts) and neutral density filters are usually used to adjust soundtrack printing exposure.
For a dye + silver (applicated) variable-area soundtrack, adjust printer exposure to achieve an optimum IR density of between 1.1 and 1.8 on the print soundtrack, as read with an infrared densitometer (800 nanometers peak sensitivity). Excellent frequency response and a high signal-to-noise ratio are obtained in this density range. Use cross-modulation test procedures to determine the density of the soundtrack negative required to produce minimum cross-modulation distortion at the optimum print density chosen.
These procedures were originally described in the paper "Modulated High-Frequency Recording as a Means of Determining Conditions for Optimal Processing", by J.O. Baker and D.H. Robinson, published in the SMPE Journal, 30:3-17, January 1938. SMPTE Recommended Practice RP 104 "Cross-Modulation Tests for Variable-Area Photographic Soundtracks" should be followed in establishing control methods.
2383/3383 Film is also designed for a variable area positive sound track of silver plus magenta dye only, printed from a negative sound track on EASTMAN EXR Sound Recording Film 2378/3378/5378/7378 and KODAK Panchromatic Sound Recording Film 2374. Expose only the top emulsion layer by using a filter pack in the light beam comprised of KODAK WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No.12 plus KODAK Color Compensating Filter 110 Cyan, or by using a filter pack in the light beam comprised of a green dichroic filter (500 nm to 600 nm). The optimum variable area sound track density for the print lies between 0.8 and 1.1 (read at 800 nm). This print density will provide a good compromise between signal-to-noise ratio and frequency response. Determine the density of the sound track negative required to produce optimum print density by using recognized cross-modulation test procedures. This silver plus magenta dye only sound track can be read by both an infrared reader, and a red LED reader, with about the same cross-modulation distortion.
Digital sound-on-film soundtracks (e.g. Dolby Digital and SONY SDDS) usually are dye only. Each system vendor provides exposure recommendations and control procedures for optimum performance.
Storage of Exposed Film Prior to Processing
When schedules permit, the exposed film should be processed soon after printing, ideally within a few hours. Fortunately, 2383/3383 Film has the same excellent latent image keeping (LIK) characteristics as 2386, 3386 Film, allowing laboratories some flexibility in scheduling processing. Even when the exposed film must be kept several days before processing, the tone scale of 2383/3383 Film shows little change. Depending upon the storage temperature of the exposed film, labs may find it desirable to compensate for the small latent image speed loss by increasing printer TRIMS slightly if a long delay is expected between printing and processing (usually a neutral increase of 1 to 2 printer points is all that is necessary). Changes in latent image can be slowed by storing the exposed film at reduced temperatures. For critical applications, such as sensitometric exposures used for process control, the exposed film strips should be kept at a temperature below 0°C(32°F). To avoid moisture condensation, frozen or refrigerated film should be equilibrated to room temperature before opening the container.
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 may be processed along with EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386, using Process ECP-2D. No change in process sequence is required. Complete process specifications, formulae, and procedures are contained in KODAK Publication No. H-24.09, Manual for Processing EASTMAN Motion Picture Films, Module 9.
Because it has no rem-jet to be removed, 2383/3383 Film offers the potential for eliminating the current prebath, and reducing water usage. However, care must be exercised if the rem-jet removal steps are eliminated, as replenishment rates will change if dry film enters the developer directly. Soluble dye build-up in the seasoned developer will also increase. Reducing water usage during processing lead to increased concentrations of total process effluent from the laboratory, which may have regulatory implications. For further assistance, contact your Kodak engineering representative.
Print film occasionally exhibits "static cling" during projection, where several laps of the film may stick together as they feed to the control arm on a platter, causing erratic platter behavior and possible film jam or "brain wrap". This behavior is affected by the design of the platter, the ambient conditions in the projection room, the winding orientation and curl of the film, and a variety of other factors. Kodak recommends maintaining a relative humidity of 50-60 percent RH in the projection room.
Staticide 3000G, a process additive available from ACL Staticide, may be added to the final rinse (tank and replenisher) of the ECP-2 process at a concentration of 0.01% (0.1 ml per litre) to reduce the incidence of "static cling". Kodak testing and trade experience have shown that films having a process-surviving conductive anti-static backings will be much less prone to "static cling" when processed with the Staticide process additive. Other similar quaternary ammonium compounds may also be effective as final rinse anti-static additives, but have not been certified for use in the ECP-2 Process.
Staticide 3000G Concentrate is available from ACL Staticide, 1960 East Devan Avenue, Elk Grove Village, Illinois 60007, USA (Telephone: 847-981-9212, Fax: 847-981-9278), who can supply the chemical through distributors worldwide.
The antihalation dyes used in 2383/3383 Film are decolorized and removed during processing. Although most of the dye is removed in the developer, complete removal is also dependent on the "tail end" solutions, such as the bleach.
Care should be taken to maintain a clean process. This includes proper solution mixing and storage procedures to minimize "tar" formation, periodic cleaning of racks and tanks, proper maintenance of squeegees and wiper blades, efficient filtration, as well as process machine and recirculation designed to minimize aeration (e.g., submerged racks).
Lubrication of Processed Prints
The scratch-resistant polymeric backing offers improved resistance to back-side abrasions and scratching. Process-surviving lubricants are incorporated into both the backing and the top layer (SOC) of the emulsion side, to optimize transport characteristics and improve abrasion resistance. However, post-process lubrication of prints is still recommended to optimize print performance, reduce "dusting", and extend print life. Edge-waxing is especially important for reducing the wear and extending the life of digital soundtrack information printed on 35-mm film in areas of severe projector abrasion, such as along the edges or between the perforations. The additional lubrication helps reduce abrasion of the film, much as wax protects the surface of fine furniture or an automobile. The reduced friction afforded by proper lubrication also reduces perforation wear, improves steadiness, and results in quieter transport of the film through the projector. Edge-waxing is specified by SMPTE Recommended Practice RP 151, "Lubrication of 35-mm Motion-Picture Prints for Projection".
KODAK Publication No.H-24.02, "Manual for Processing Eastman Color Films, Module 2, Equipment and Procedures", discusses film lubrication procedures. Lubrication is also specified in the Mechanical Specifications for Process ECP-2A and ECP-2D, in KODAK Publication No.H-24.09, Module 9. For 16mm prints, a full-coat (overall) lubrication is usually adequate. But 35-mm and 70-mm prints require edge-waxing, since the higher concentration of wax needed for optimum performance might be visible as mottle if applied to the picture image area. Traditionally, edge-wax was applied by using a dilute solution of hard wax (e.g., paraffin) in solvent, applied to the edges of the processed film by an applicator wheel. This method is discussed in the paper "Lubrication of 35-mm Release Prints for Extended Projection Print Life" by Edward Mino and Rodney S. Perry, published in the October 1983 SMPTE Journal.
Edge-waxing by application of paste wax to the sidewall of the wound roll is also an easy, low-cost method of lubricating prints. Commercially available paste waxes (e.g., SC Johnson Paste Wax or Johnson Traffic Wax) are a mixture of hard waxes (e.g., paraffin or carnauba) in a fast-evaporating hydrocarbon solvent. A small amount of the paste-wax applied evenly to the sidewall of the wound print penetrates from the edge of the film to the perforations by capillary action. After the solvent evaporates, only a thin transparent coating of hard wax remains along the edge and between the perforations of the film. Care is needed to evenly apply just enough wax (approximately one gram of wax per side of a 2000-foot reel of film), so that the wax remains outside of the picture image area, and does not build up in the projector.
The use of oils, or other non-volatile materials (e.g., WD-40) as film lubricants is NOT recommended. These materials may cause the film convolutions to stick together, or make rolls difficult to handle. Oil deposits may be visible as mottle, or hold dirt particles on the film. Some materials may actually leach the oil-soluble dyes from the film.
Storage of Processed Prints
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 has excellent image stability characteristics, very similar to 2386, 3386 Film. While prints are not usually intended as permanent records, Kodak recognizes the importance of good image stability. (Pre-print materials are the primary films intended for long-term storage, since new prints or video transfers can be made from them.) Even though most theatrical release prints spend a relatively short time in release before being deliberately destroyed, some prints find use in other markets, or are re-released years later. Museums and film archives usually do not have access to pre-print materials, so prints constitute the bulk of their collections.
Predictive dark-keeping image stability testing using the Arrhenius method (accelerated fading at high temperatures, extrapolated to predict the rate of fading at lower temperatures) shows that even after several decades of storage at room temperature and 50% relative humidity, properly processed prints made on 2383/3383 Film will show less than 10 percent image dye density loss. Of course, actual image and support stability depend upon the processing conditions, storage conditions, and other factors beyond the control of Kodak. Since color dyes may change over time, color films will not be replaced for, or otherwise warranted against, any change in color.
Store processed prints according to the recommendations in standard ANSI IT9.11-1992. SMPTE Recommended Practice RP 131-1994 also contains recommendations for proper film storage. For short-term "active" storage and projection (e.g., commercial film exchanges and theatres), room temperature of 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F) at 50 to 60 percent relative humidity is recommended. Avoid prolonged unconditioned storage at high temperatures or excessive humidity. For medium-term storage, store at 10°C (50°F) or lower, at a relative humidity of 20 to 30 percent. For extended-term storage (for preservation of material having permanent value), store at 2°C (36°F) or lower, at a relative humidity of 20 to 30 percent. Enclosed long-term storage (i.e., sealed cans) will benefit by the use of Molecular Sieves in the storage container. Molecular Sieves are available from FPC (A Kodak Company), 6677 Santa Monica Boulevard, Hollywood, CA, 90038, Telephone (213) 468-5774.
Additional information on the proper storage and handling of processed film is contained in KODAK Publication No.H-23, The Book of Film Care.
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 offers superior performance during projection. The permanent humidity-independent anti-static layer greatly reduces static charging of the film and annoying "shocks" and static discharge, even at the high transport speeds during rewinding and make-up onto platters. The anti-stat also helps reduce static attraction of dirt to the processed film during projection, resulting in longer print runs with less build-up of black dirt and cinch marks.
Process-surviving lubricants are incorporated into both the backing and the top layer (SOC) of the emulsion side to optimize transport characteristics and improve abrasion resistance. However, post-process lubrication is still recommended to achieve optimum print life and performance for extended runs and special-venue applications. Contact your Kodak technical representative for recommendations.
2383/3383 Film is resistant to damage from excessive radiant energy during projection, including "hot spot" emulsion voids or "snowflakes", and dye migration problems. Efficient infrared filters (heat absorbers, IR dichroic reflectors, or "cold mirrors") are recommended for lamphouses with bulbs larger than 1600 watts. Care should be taken to optically align and focus the lamphouse for uniform illumination across the projector aperture. Use of an efficient ultraviolet-absorbing filter (cutoff at 400 nanometers) will minimize any print fading during extended runs, as might be encountered in special-venue applications requiring thousands of showings at high power levels.
Although prints made on 2383/3383 Film will perform well under a wide range of ambient conditions, projection facilities should try to maintain constant levels of temperature and humidity. Recommended conditions are 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F), and 50 to 60 percent relative humidity. For optimum projection focus performance, processed prints should always be wound emulsion-in, in accordance with SMPTE Recommended Practice RP 39-1993. Normal 35mm and 70mm print orientation is with the emulsion-side toward the lamp, and the base-side toward the projection lens, per standard SMPTE 194-1991.
Because of the high tensile strength and tear resistance of polyester film, Kodak has always recommended the use of tension-sensing fail-safes (not just film-break detectors) to protect equipment and reduce film damage in the event of tension build-up due to a misthread or projector malfunction. A variety of fail-safes are available from theatre equipment dealers.
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 is manufactured on ESTAR base. Since ESTAR base is impervious to most solvents, solvent-based "cement" splicing CANNOT be used.
Thermal-weld ultrasonic splicers may be used on both raw stock and processed film. After cutting, the two pieces of film are overlapped slightly and brought into contact with a horn that focuses acoustic energy from an ultrasonic transducer to the film overlap. A pressure roller brings the film into intimate contact with the horn, causing localized heating and fusion of the polyester support, creating a strong weld and reliable splice. Key splicing parameters are the acoustic frequency and power output, roller pressure, and roller transit time. Although the emulsion and back-side layers become part of the polyester weld, there is usually no need to scrape them off prior to ultrasonic splicing. Splicing parameters and splicer setup for 2383/3383 Film are very similar to those used for 2386, 3386 Film.
Adhesive tape splicing is often used in splicing rolls of printed raw stock prior to processing. Clear adhesive splicing tape is the most frequently used method of splicing processed prints in theatres, producing reliable splices on relatively inexpensive splicers that are simple to use. Current splicing procedures using high-quality splicing tapes will work equally well on both 2383/3383 Film and 2386, 3386 Film.
KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 raw stock has the familiar blue-purple emulsion color of print film, similar to EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386. Slight batch-to-batch variations in raw stock color are normal. The back-side of the raw stock has no rem-jet, and it appears dark blue to slate-gray, with a slight iridescence (subtle color band appearance by reflected light).
Processed 2383/3383 Film has slightly less surface gloss than processed 2386, 3386 Film. When viewed by reflected light, the back side exhibits an iridescence, with subtle color bands due to the dichroic nature of the very thin back side coatings.
Processed film has magenta edgeprint (compatible with digital sound) with the following information printed along the length of the film: "2383/3383 (strip number) KODAK (date)".
2383/3383 Film is only available on ESTAR support, and is never on triacetate support. Most 35mm applications use KS-1870 (ISO type "P") print perforations.
Like EASTMAN EXR Color Print Film 2386, 3386, KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 is a projection-contrast color print film, primarily intended for optical projection onto a theatre screen.
Film-to-video transfers are best made from pre-print materials such as original negatives, master positives, or duplicate negatives. Excellent transfers can also be made from prints especially for telecine transfer using KODAK Color Teleprint Film 5381 (35mm), an ultra-low contrast print film created specifically for easier, better-looking telecine transfers.
Available Roll Lengths
For information on available roll lengths and formats of KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383, contact your Kodak Professional Motion Imaging sales representative.
These graphs are designed to be printed in landscape mode. They will print properly on most printers in their current page set-up of 100%. However, some printers may require adjustments to the browser page set-up in order to have the graph print on a single 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper.
Data for each of the following characteristics was obtained for film processed in Process ECP-2D:
Note:These photographic modulation-transfer values were determined by using a method similar to the one described in in ANSI/PIMA Standard IT9.39-1998. The film was exposed with the specified illuminant to spatially varying sinusoidal test patterns having an aerial image modulation of a nominal 35 percent at the image plane, with processing as indicated. In most cases, the photographic modulation-transfer values are influenced by development-adjacency effects and are not equivalent to the true optical modulation-transfer curve of the emulsion layer in the particular photographic product.
Spectral Dye Density
To find the rms Granularity value for a given density, find the density on the left vertical scale and follow horizontally to the characteristic curve and then go vertically (up or down) to the granularity curve. At that point, follow horizontally to the Granularity Sigma D scale on the right. Read the number and multiply by 1000 for the rms value.
Note:The Kodak materials described in this publication for use with KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 are available from dealers who supply Kodak products. You can use other materials, but you may not obtain similar results.
The contents of this publication are subject to change without notice.
Kodak, Eastman, 2244, 5244, 2374, 2378, 3378, 5378, 7378, 5381, 2383/3383, 2386, 3386, EXR, Estar, Vision, and Wratten are trademarks.
Standard Products Available
|KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383/3383 |
|FORMAT ||LENGTH IN FEET (METERS) ||PERFORATION/PITCH |
|35 mm SP779 ||4000 (1220) ||KS-1870 |
|35 mm SP789 ||6000 (1829) ||KS-1870 |
|70 mm SP542 ||2500 (762) ||KS-1870 |
|Note: For availability of non-standard products, contact Kodak in your country. |
©Eastman Kodak Company 1998